25W r 1 141000 1kΩ Resistor, 0. ECE 202 – Experiment 4 – Lab Report c) What value of V REF would set your output to be -15 V, if v in = 5 V pp? d) What value of V REF would set your output to be +15 V, if v in = 5 V pp? INVERTING AMPLIFIER 9. Also, the gain of these amplifiers is such that it will not vary according to the frequency of the signal, over a wide range. 4 Experiment 2 The objective of this experiment is to design a circuit that accepts as input, solar module output, and turns on LEDs to indicate the level of ambient light present. mandela – Arvind Gupta PHYSICAL SCIENCE ACTIVITIES FOR SCHOOLS CESI BOOK TWO (7 MB PDF) SCIENCE ACTIVITIES PHYSICS FOR FUN – J. Now calibrate the amplifier by measuring input voltages and output voltages. Fiore via dissidents ISBN13: 978-1796855623. The closed-loop gain is R f / R in, hence = −. This Laboratory Manual for Operational Amplifiers & Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Application, Third Edition is copyrighted under the terms of a Creative Commons license: This work is freely redistributable for non-commercial use, share-alike with attribution Published by James M. Observation of Recombinants 1. These experiments are. Differential Amplifier. coli /pAMP onto LB +pAMP plate. Plot this gain relation and discuss in your lab book and report. 1 shows the 8-DIP package of a type 741 OP-AMP with its terminals labeled. Objectives: After completion of this experiment, student will be able to design and setup a summing amplifier using OP AMP. dps 16mar2005. State Variable Modeling The purpose of this session is to introduce the basics of state variable modeling known as \state space" techniques. Measure DC operating voltages at each circuit nodes, voltage gain, input, output impedance of the amplifier and compare the values to the Prelab. 2 The useful AC power is then v O (t), volts V CQ T t V CQ +V CP V. 3, using resistor values R f ≈ 8kΩ, R 1 ≈ 2kΩ and R 2 ≈ 1kΩ. If you apply a reference voltage to one of the inputs and then use the other input to monitor a voltage from some point in a circuit, the output of the op amp will go from high to low (or vice-versa) as the monitored voltage crosses the reference voltage. Differential Amplifier Circuits _____ 11. 470-471)] Objectives: 1. Total deposition estimates are derived from summing wet and dry deposition. Operational Amplifiers Lab Report. 3 LabView Files. Apply a 1 kHz sine wave signal of about 1 volt p-p to the noninverting (+) input, with the inverting (-) input grounded. This laboratory experiment will focus on the modeling, identi¯cation, and position control of an armature controlled DC-servomotor. Since we don't have the first two available at this time, we'll use the third source for this experiment. An inverting amplifier 2. This date will be determined by the course staff and communicated to you by the GTFs. w2aew Mr Carlson's Lab. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED Components 1*LF351 OPAMP 5*20KΩ 15*10KΩ 4*switch PRELİMİNARY WORK Study OPAMP summing amplifiers and review how to use it as a Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) by binary weighted resistors and R-2R ladder arrangement. OBJECTIVES. Add 25 mL of distilled water measured carefully with a graduated cylinder and re-weight the flask and stopper with the water. Experiments: The Operational Amplifier I. It is the fundamental building block of analog circuit. 1 is of type called Class A amplifier. Analog Adder or Summing Amplifier | Application of Op-amp. • CB gives all the voltage gain, acting as transimpedance of value Z L • The cascode has a much higher output impedance (other than Z L) than the CE amplifier (the common emitter Early resistance acts as series-series feedback. 6 THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP) summing amplifier, and voltage follower. Set up this circuit. It is the final electronic stage in a typical audio playback chain. Assume that the input impedance of the op amp is infinite. Experiment #8: Operational Amplifiers and Applications. LIC APPLICATIONS LAB DEPARTMENT OF ECE LENDI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 8 EXPERIMENT NO: 2 Date: APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (IC 741) AIM: To design and study the operation of IC 741 Operational amplifier as a) Adder b) Subtractor c) Comparator APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Older designs of meters are mechanical in nature, using some kind of pointer device to show quantity of measurement. BRIEF THEORY -EXPERIMENT 3 BASIC ELECTRONIC LAB (SKEE 2742) 2 Note: pk = peak Figure 2 b) Difference Amplifier A difference amplifier has two inputs and the output voltage is proportional to the voltage difference of the input voltages. An inverting amplifier is a special case of the differential amplifier in which that circuit's non-inverting input V 2 is grounded, and inverting input V 1 is identified with V in above. The audio amplifier will be a self-contained, battery-operated component. 1 DC Servo Motor OBJECTIVES: The aim of this experiment is to provide students with a sound introduction to the principles of analogue servomechanisms, and by extension to those of closed-loop systems more generally. • The basic Op-amp construction is of a 3-terminal device, with 2-inputs and 1-output, (excluding power connections). Experiment No 2. The source of these signals might be anything at all. We were asked to design an amplifier that inverts and amplifies the signal to produce an output with a maximum of 16Vpp. EXPERIMENT 7 LAB MANUAL. xls, that the student can use to perform a variety of simulations to better understand the. Experiment 4 Op-Amp Circuits Purpose: In this experiment, you will learn about operational amplifiers (or op-amps). Determine the gain of the amplifier. The sum of the input signal is amplified by a certain factor and made available at the output. When a command potential (V c) is applied in. University of Pennsylvania ESE206: Electrical Circuits and Systems II – Lab MOSFET (Field Effect Transistor) Lab Biasing and Amplification of a Common-Source Voltage Amplifier 1. It can be applied to linear and. Darlington Emitter Follower 8 3. Capacitors are. As we saw in the previous experiment, the op-amp isn't very useful in an "open-loop" configuration (i. A typical summing amplifier with three input voltages V 1, V 2 and V 3 three input resistors R 1, R 2, R 3 and a feedback resistor R f. You also have a -reference voltage available V2=-5V. Swift (1667-1745) OBJECTIVE To learn to operate a cathode ray oscilloscope. Lab 4 - 1 Physics 120 Lab 4 (2019) - Operational Amplifiers - Basics Today we move into the world of feedback and use operational amplifiers (op-amps) as a powerful approach. 470-471)] Objectives: 1. line follower circuit will consist of an operational amplifier (op-amp), resistors, infrared sensors, motors, wheels, a battery pack, and a unique approach of using a breadboard as both the platform in which the circuit is built and the chassis of the motorized vehicle. Experiment 11 Multistage Amplifiers 3 of 5 In your lab, the cascode circuit will include extra biasing circuits as shown in Fig. The -DNA/+Amp plate has Ampicillin added and should see no growth because the ampicillin kills all of the bacteria. At least ten experiments are to be performed in the Semester. 25W r 1 143300 3. 05 Hz ~12,000,000 141 For the "Op07" Op Amp, ϖ π ϖ π T B AO = dB If the open loop bandwidth is so small, how can the op amp be useful? The answer to this is found by considering the closed loop gain. Faisal Ahmed 3. Experiment 4 Op-Amp Circuits Purpose: In this experiment, you will learn about operational amplifiers (or op-amps). The transistor you used can have a current gain of between 40 and 400. EE 233 Lab 2: Amplifiers Laboratory Manual Page 2 of 10 3 Prelab Exercises 3. In 28 bursts recorded from 16th September 2018 through 30th October 2019, we find that bursts arrive in a 4. You may work on this experiment until the close of laboratory time in EC410. Experiment #3: View Strain Gage Output on Computer Screen In this experiment, you will build a LabVIEW VI to measure and display the voltage output from the strain gage sensor circuit you built in Experiment #2. ECE 20700 Experiment 08 Pre-Lab Assignment Applications of Operational Amplifiers Summing Amplifier: The circuit shown in Figure 1 below is the same circuit used in the previous post-lab assignment. BACTERIAL CULTURE TECHNIQUES 333 PART A Isolation of Individual Colonies FLAME loop COOL loop SCRAPE UP cell mass FLAME loop COOL loop STREAK 2 FLAME loop COOL loop STREAK 3 FLAME loop COOL loop STREAK 4 INCUBATE 15–20 hours STREAK 1 37°C 331-350 DNA Sci Lab 02 11/9/05 11:54 AM Page 333. Repeat steps 20 – 23 to streak E. To bias a NMOS transistor. Experiment with the system gain vs PMT HV by using the position of the 137Cs photopeak on the MCA output. Credit also goes to Peter for the expanded appendix giving a quick review of matlab commands. Open-Loop Time Response Experiment The goal of this experiment is to generate the tachometer response to a step command voltage applied to the amplifier. The standard symbol for the op amp is given in Figure 1. Pengra Overview Physics 334 is the first quarter of a two-quarter electronic circuits course (334-335), and is one of the lab courses that is required of all physics majors. Physics 4700 Experiment 6 Operational Amplifiers 1) Design a non-inverting amplifier with gain of 0, 20, and 60 dB. In this experiment, what type of DC motors is used? 2. 3 Magnitude and Phase response of a Unity Gain System 19 1. A inverting amplifier provides the same function as the common emitter and common-source amplifiers. Theory - The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard Inverting Operational Amplifier configuration. The closed loop gain of the inverting amplifier works based on the ratio of the two external resistors R 1 and R f and Op-Amp acts as a negative scaler when it multiplies the input by a negative constant factor. DESIGN PRINCIPLES. Observation of Recombinants 1. tion of a square wave and some other periodic wave-forms using a computer. Assume x cm = 50. Experiment 11 Multistage Amplifiers 3 of 5 In your lab, the cascode circuit will include extra biasing circuits as shown in Fig. Total : 50 Marks Duration of Exam : 3 Hrs. 2 Lab #1: Cascode Amplifier 3 Lab #2: Differential Amplifier 4 Lab #3: Active Filters I Experiment 1: The Cascode Amplifier and an inverting (summing) amplifier. Below is a circuit diagram depicting the application of an op-amp as an adder or summing amplifier. Report the measured slew rate. Wien Bridge Oscillator Introduction Oscillators are circuits that produce periodic waveforms without any input signal. The summing amplifier has added two voltages, but has inverted the output. 2 kΩ, R2 = 6. Physics 334: Electric Circuits Laboratory I Based on Winter 2018 as taught by D. Lab Experiments: Experiment 1: Construct common emitter (CE) amplifiers simulated in the pre-lab analysis. Gains Circuit Diagram Block Diagram Inverting Amplifier. An op amp circuit is shown in figure 2. Equipment List 1. Laboratory Experiments: Experiment 1: Construct and Analyze Circuit Construct the function generator circuit from the schematic shown below. Don’t enter into the lab with golden rings, bracelets and bangles. Use the oscilloscope to observe the input and output signals. Experiment 1: Operational Amplifiers Background This experiment investigates the properties of voltage amplifiers using the LF411 operational amplifier. If this amplifier is set-up so that it has enough gain to counter the loss in the summing resistors (20 dB), then we will have the same level at the output of the amplifier as we do at the output of each channel (prior to the summing resistor). 1: Standard op amp symbol The name "op amp" is the standard abbreviation for operational amplifier. 0V that needs to be shifted to the input range of an ADC which is 0 to +2V. The 747 is a pair of high-performance monolithic operational. Learn how damping affects simple harmonic motion B. To study and design the application of 555 timer like monostable multivibrator. The ideal input-output relationship for this di erentiator is given by v o(t) = RC dv i(t) dt: (1) A simple integrator based on the RC Op-Amp circuit can be found in Figure 2. Ideal Op-Amp. This time for this fusion, we have my Vixen Fursona, April, fusing with 's Vixen Fursona, Takara. 3ECE-I Sem - AC Lab Aurora's Engineering College 10 5. In fact, the (open-loop) Op-Amp itself is a difference amplifier, except that the gain is ideally infinity. Name of the Equipment Values Quantity 1 Op-Amp 741 IC 1 2 Resistor 100 KΩ , 10 KΩ 2 3 NPN transistor BC 548 1 4 Function Generator 1MHz 1 5 CRO 20 MHz 1. Physics 4700 Experiment 6 Operational Amplifiers 1) Design a non-inverting amplifier with gain of 0, 20, and 60 dB. Second Year Laboratory 2009 Experiment A 1 of 5 Experiment A Design and measurement of a high-gain amplifier Aims Understand the uses & limitations of op-amp circuits Appreciate the importance of good design and build practices Learn to create circuits conforming to a given gain & noise specification. Patterson III B. Name of the Equipment Values Quantity 1 Op-Amp 741 IC 1 2 Resistor 100 KΩ , 10 KΩ 2 3 NPN transistor BC 548 1 4 Function Generator 1MHz 1 5 CRO 20 MHz 1. Protoboard b. 2) Connect the input terminal of the op-amp to function generator and output terminal to CRO. No Name and Specification Quantity required. The 747 is a pair of high-performance monolithic operational. Biopac Science Lab Systems provide the same proven teaching solution for secondary. DC biasing and AC analysis of small signal bipolar and FET amplifiers along with class A and B large signal analysis. The offset null (pins 1 and 5) will not be used in this experiment. This document details the Lab Protocol for NHANES 1999–2000 data. View Lab Report - BE Lab report. NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT 1 Common Emitter Amplifier 2 Common Source Amplifier 3 Two Stage RC Coupled Amplifier 4 Current Shunt Feedback Amplifier 5 Cascode Amplifier 6 Colpitts Oscillato 7 RC Phase Shift Oscillator using Transistors 8 Class-A Power Amplifier(transformer less) 9 Class -B complementary symmetry Amplifier. These experiments are. multimeter 1 4. as a function of. In this experiment, you'll align the tuned ci rcuits of the transmitter, then observe the resulting AM waveform at the Lab 4 - AM Modulator and Power Amplifier. How we control the gain and remove the noises by using LM386. ECE-342 Lab 5: BJT Amplifier This sample report from the 2007 ECE-342 Lab 5 assignment is meant to serve as a guide for lab reports for ECE-342 and ECE-343 Sample Lab Report Don Hummels, Someone Else September 9, 2011 Abstract Required Section: Very short description of what is in this report. It provides large voltage gain (typically tens to hundreds) and provides moderate input and output impedance. A scalar has only magnitude while a vector has both magnitude and direction. Experiment No Page. If the input resistors, and the feedback resistor are chosen to be equal, the output is simply the negative sum of the inputs. Experiment The main apparatus for this experiment are the test board with TLS power supply, Kingwood ACCESS oscilloscope, Homage DVD's, and the input signal function generator is Homage HM80030-2. 3/1 ECE- IC Applications Lab Manual Aurora's Engineering College 8 Experiment No. Refer to the procedure, Part 1,1st arrangement. Remaining three experiments may either be performed from the above list or designed & set by the concerned institution as per the scope of the Syllabus. Inverting and noninverting amplifiers are two configurations that operational amplifiers can be set up in. Use the second waveform generator output for Vin2. You already know that not everything conducts electricity equally well, and that some materials (like copper) resist very little, while others (like rubber) provide enough resistance to effectively prevent the flow of current. Schematic: Theory of Operation: This circuit has two potentiometers to control the two channel inputs independently. Hartley & Colpitt’s Oscillator 26 6. Lab Code: EC1. If you are rusty on transfer functions or op amp usage you may want to review those subjects. And now for a 3rd fusion comic, read as columns. Lab 7 expanded upon the instrumentation amplifier by improving circuit performance and by building a LabVIEW user interface. These circuits make use of DC feedback (coupled through the external low-pass filter), in order to stabilize this high-gain circuit. Experiment 1: Operational Amplifiers Background This experiment investigates the properties of voltage amplifiers using the LF411 operational amplifier. 2 CH 100W AF, using STK4231II. The lab should be set up to meet the flow requirements of the most routine test performed. This circuit is a summing amplifier circuit. Clipping circuits 30 7. • To demonstrate applications of op-amp as a differentiator. Experiment 4 Op-Amp Resonant Bandpass Filter Physics 116A, D. Your friend will be amazing for your electronic skills. Summing Amplifier Procedure. Lab Overview Objectives:-•Use a strain gauge in a ¼-bridge configuration •Design and construct the amplifier circuits to:-Produce a 0 - 2. If the input is a sinusoidal, then the output is also sinusoidal over the DC biasing voltage (Fig. Connecting wires 3. Fiore via dissidents. I NTRODUCTION The simple summing amplifier (shown in Figure 3-1) is capable of summing as many signals as desired with a proportionality determined by the ratio of feedback resistance to input resistance. The low noise amplifier is a spcial type of electronic amplifier used in communication systems, which amplifies very weak signals captured by an antenna. This laboratory manual has been prepared as a guideline to help students of undergraduate courses to carry out basic experiments in analog communication in the laboratory. the voltage at that terminal is zero. tion of a square wave and some other periodic wave-forms using a computer. 4: (a)CircuitforExample1. Swift (1667-1745) OBJECTIVE To learn to operate a cathode ray oscilloscope. Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology 264-33, Pasadena, California 91125 ~Received 9 August 2002; accepted 9 April 2003! We describe a basic experiment for the undergraduate laboratory that demonstrates aspects of both the science and the art of precision electronic measurements. In an inverting and single non-inverting input op-amp summer, R1-R3 interact to. You would compare the -DNA/+Amp and +DNA/+Amp plates because the -DNA/+Amp plate is a control plate and the +DNA/+Amp is a variable so you are comparing whether the altered E. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: S no. 1 Experiment: Simple Half-Wave Rectifier: 1. The op-amp requires a ±15 V power source. 0 VDC and V 2 = 0. infinite gain) device, this gain is achieved regardless of output load. An inverting-amplifier circuit is built by grounding the positive input of the operational amplifier and connecting resistors R1 and R2, called the feedback networks, between the inverting input and the signal source and amplifier output node. APPARATUS: S. Theory:-An OPerational AMPlifier or OPAMP is a very high gain differential amplifier with high input impedance and low output impedance. Clipping circuits 30 7. In the TRIOAMP experiment, you will study dual triode operation as a voltage amplifier with AC input. It is represented by the symbol shown in Fig. The principal features of this configuration are The amplifier is inverting for all inputs with the feedback loop closed. Lab 8, Page 1 Lab 8: Active Filters for Instrumentation Amplifier. 5) Measure (and record) the voltage drop from a to b (across R 4). single tuned voltage amplifier theory pdf ATo design CE single stage amplifier with potential divider circuit using NPN. shows several fundamental feedback Op-Amp circuits including the DC Inverting Amplifier, DC Non-Inverting Amplifier, Summing Amplifier, Difference Amplifier, Buffer, and Comparator. Plot the duty cycle (experiment and model) as a function of R1 for fixed R2 and C. In this experiment you will study the response curve of an inexpensive audio amplifier and obtain a response curve. 2 The Summing-Point Constraint Operational amplifiers are almost always used with negative feedback, in which part of the op-amp output signal is returned to the input in opposition to the source signal. Put an annotated copy of your unknown amino acid, with your name and unknown number clearly noted, on the fileserver within 24 hours after the completion of the lab period. Operational Amplifier Configurations CSE 577 Spring 2011 Mixed Signal Chip Design Lab Jaehyun Lim, Kyusun Choi Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Pennsylvania State University. Physics 334: Electric Circuits Laboratory I Based on Winter 2018 as taught by D. Be sure to show all your work in your lab report. They can also be used to take derivatives and integrals. Operational Amplifiers (Opamp) has so many interesting applications, and we have already created many circuits using op-amps. Selecting an appropriate op amp is an important part in designing an instrumentation amplifier. In this video you will come to know about inverting and non inverting amplifier practically. This is the datasheet for the op-amps in your lab kit;. The summing amplifier has added two voltages, but has inverted the output. Every laboratory situation is different. doc REVISION: 0. Ideal op-amp circuits are analyzed by the following steps: 1. In Lab 6, a simple instrumentation amplifier was implemented and tested. Before the lab exam at the end of the semester, you can visually go over all the experiments done over the semester by loading these files one by one on your computer. Wire all the components together to build the circuit from the pre -lab. Pearson, as an active contributor to the biology learning community, is pleased to provide free access to the Classic edition of The Biology Place to all educators and their students. The big disadvantage of the non-inverting summing amp is that if you disconnect one of the inputs, the gain of the circuit doubles for the remaining connected channel. Observe this signal on the. In the second part of the lab you will construct a. List of Equipment /Software Following equipment/software is required:. This combination is known as the cascode amplifier. This circuit is a summing amplifier circuit. 2) Connect the input terminal of the op-amp to function generator and output terminal to CRO. cutoff values) So Tolerance design focuses on reducing s2, without considering %. Op-Amps Experiment Theory. Jordan University of Science and Technology Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Instrumentation and Dynamic Systems Lab Experiment #3: Op-amp 2. Particulars Specification/Range Quantity Make/Model No. 2012-3-80-014. 1 Analysis of Circuits (2017-10110) Operational Amplifiers: 6 - 1 / 12. Libbrechta) and Eric D. Rony Kumer Saha _____ Report approval status: Approved. Summing Amplifier Theory Op-amp Summing Amplifier Circuit Fig. If you are rusty on transfer functions or op amp usage you may want to review those subjects. Function generator f. The Gunt FL100 measurement amplifier reads the Wheatstone bridge and outputs the strain as 𝑚𝑉 𝑉. Lab 7 expanded upon the instrumentation amplifier by improving circuit performance and by building a LabVIEW user interface. LEDs should turn on according to the following specifications:. You can see in the case of the LM741C, the input offset current is about. The two op-amp solution used in Electronics is compared with this circuit on the Two Op-amp Circuit page. Come prepared to the lab with relevant theory about the Experiment you are conducting. Any number of input signal can be summed using an op-amp. 3 Introduction Electronics are a part of every modern laboratory. How we control the gain and remove the noises by using LM386. 1 Three voltages V1, V2 and V3 are applied to the inputs and produce currents I1, I2 and I3. Modeling of Systems – Machines, Sensors and Transducers 4. Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project (CHIME/FRB) 4,9. What if you have an audio signal V1= +/-1. txt) or read online for free. The instructions here will be minimal, as your experience constructing the previous circuits, and your study of the lecture material, should enable you to figure out how to make. In our current amplifier, we will drive a similar push–pull output stage with a common collector (i. 7) Remove R 4 from your circuit. If you understand what we are doing in this experiment, you will be all set to do well on the midterm questions about circuits! Equipment: Resistors (R1 = 2. It is sometimes stated that a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program need not produce absolute peak area estimates as long as the program is consistent and the area estimate is indeed proportional to the true peak area. The AC signal voltage gain is defined as A v = V o /V i where V o and V i can both be rms, peak, or peak-peak values. Designing a Common-Collector Amplifier BACKGROUND In the previous lab, you designed a common-emitter (CE) amplifier. An op amp is a voltage amplifying device. It can be applied to linear and. Power can be calculated using the equation. The five experiments to be performed in the laboratory component of the course are given in the following sections. The Summing amplifier is a type operational amplifier circuit which can be used to sum signals. Schematic shows a differential amplifier with output tied to a common emitter amplifier that drives a class AB push–pull amplifier. Stability Analysis 3. This T otal Deposition Science Commit - tee (TDEP) was formed within the National Atmospheric. Simulate this. Again drive the circuit with a sine wave at a frequency of 1 kHz. Cascode amplifier • Wideband voltage amplifier • CE stage operates at gain=-1, minimising miller loading of input. Objectives The objectives of this second MOSFET lab are: 1. 2 A Unity Gain System 18 1. A variable. Connect the circuit shown in the figure 1. Experiments: The Operational Amplifier I. EE 43/100 Operational Amplifiers 1 Op-Amps Experiment Theory 1. An operational amplifier, or op amp (shown in Figure 1), is an electronic circuit that can control both the voltage and current of electrical circuits, often used in thermostats, strain gages, and accelerometers, among other things. Op-Amp LM358 3 Pre-lab Exercises A simple di erentiator based on the RC Op-Amp circuit can be found in Figure 1. K7QO Lab Notebook Version 6. Lab 4 - 4 Figure 4. Before the lab exam at the end of the semester, you can visually go over all the experiments done over the semester by loading these files one by one on your computer. Try to keep all cultures and plates at 37°C as much as possible and use sterile techniques in all your work. The circuitry is similar in complexity to a simple one-transistor radio but the performance is far superior. Analysis of the summing amplifier starts with our op amp golden rules. This handout gives an introduction to these amplifiers and a smattering of the various configurations that they can be used in. The main objective of this Lab is to help students: - recognize the basic components used in electronics - learn the names and schematic symbols of electronic components - learn to follow and understand electronic schematic diagrams - learn the basic function of electronic components. You will compare experimental results on frequency response and phase shift with analytical and SPICE analysis. 1V peak-to-peak input voltage is amplified to 1V peak-to-peak. Rayas-Sánchez January-May 2007 Objectives The objectives of this lab experiment are: a) to design an stabilized single-stage voltage amplifier using a discrete bipolar transistor b) to simulate some of the most important parameters of a voltage amplifier using a SPICE. However, unless we tear into the internals of the mathematical description or do some experimentation, we don’t know how the model handles other non-ideal effects, like slew rate, gain-bandwidth, etc. And conduct an experiment to draw frequency response and verify roll-off. shows several fundamental feedback Op-Amp circuits including the DC Inverting Amplifier, DC Non-Inverting Amplifier, Summing Amplifier, Difference Amplifier, Buffer, and Comparator. Familiarity with operational amplifiers (op-amps) and basic op-amp circuits: inverting, non-inverting, and summing amplifiers. From this. The voltage gain decreases when RL is added because of the voltage drop across RO. 3 LabView Files. common source amplifier. In the second part of the lab you will construct a. cutoff values) So Tolerance design focuses on reducing s2, without considering %. pdf from EMT 1255 at New York City College of Technology, CUNY. Electronics-Tutorial. EXPERIMENT NO. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS PART II. emitter amplifier, the output voltage of the common collector amplifier is in phase with the input voltage. The audio amplifier and microphone are important building blocks of many audio communications systems, and will be used in our ultrasonic transceiver system. 6: Operational Amplifiers 6: Operational Amplifiers •Operational Amplifier •Negative Feedback •Analysing op-amp circuits •Non-inverting amplifier •Voltage Follower •Inverting Amplifier •Inverting Summing Amplifier •Differential Amplifier •Schmitt Trigger •Choosing Resistor Values •Summary. Make common electronic measurements with a digital oscilloscope. Operational Amplifiers TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2006 4 2. This module therefore describes some typical circuits used to control the values of input and output impedance and frequency characteristics of amplifier circuits. Your results should show the same general trend, but don’t be concerned if there are considerable discrepancies between our results and yours. INTRODUCTION TO LABCHART 8!!! 6 The Input Amplifier Dialog Through the Input Amplifier dialog, you can modify signals so they are displayed optimally when you start recording. The digital inputs could be TTL voltages which close the switches on a logical 1 and leave it grounded for a logical 0. Modify the amplifier of part C so that unity-gain buffer amplifiers are placed on each input: these buffer amplifiers will increase the input impedance to that of the OpAmp. This laboratory experiment will focus on the modeling, identi¯cation, and position control of an armature controlled DC-servomotor. Electronic Circuits Workshop – Snap Circuits LEARNING GOALS: After the completion of this workshop, students will understand: 1. 2, 2008 1200 South 71 st Street West Allis, WI 53214, USA (414) xxx-xxxx FAX: (414) xxx-xxxx Email: [email protected] Particulars Range Quantity 1. Operational Amplifiers Lab Report. Start work on design of variable-gain instrumentation amplifier before coming to the lab. When the function generator offset is varied, the square wave becomes asymmetric. The instructions here will be minimal, as your experience constructing the previous circuits, and your study of the lecture material, should enable you to figure out how to make. Part 1, 1/2 SW06 switch and summing amplifier. Physics 136-2: General Physics Lab Laboratory Manual - Electricity and Magnetism NorthwesternUniversity Version1. Keeping in mind. To characterize a BJT dynamically. Pin diagram and basic operation of 74163 follows Discussion section of this experiment. Plot the duty cycle (experiment and model) as a function of R1 for fixed R2 and C. With V in small enough to avoid slew-rate distortion, measure and record the bandwidth of the amplifier (See the description in the introduction section). This date will be determined by the course staff and communicated to you by the GTFs. Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation (EE-323-F) LAB MANUAL(V SEM ECE) Page 4 VERTICAL AMPLIFIER:-This is a wide band amplifier used to amplify signal in the vertical section of the signal. Some of these are directly involved in designing the experiment to test the hypotheses required by the project. The instructions here will be minimal, as your experience constructing the previous circuits, and your study of the lecture material, should enable you to figure out how to make. However, if the input resistors are of different values a "scaling summing amplifier" is produced which will output a. JARDEEN (5. Observe the actual time-domain response on the oscilloscope and compare with the results of the simulation. EQUIPMENTS AND COMPONENTS: i. Experiment l(a) : i-v characteristics of a semiconductor diode Procedure Connect the diode according to the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. If you understand what we are doing in this experiment, you will be all set to do well on the midterm questions about circuits! Equipment: Resistors (R1 = 2. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. EE 233 Lab 4: Second-Order Filters Laboratory Manual Page 1 of 6 1 Introduction This lab is designed to teach students how to design filters from a given topology and specifications, analyze the characteristics of the designed filters, measure the characteristics of the designed filter, and complete the entire audio mixing console. PROCEDURE Note: This experiment will be performed by students at a table forming a group. Start by shutting off the power supplies and assemble the circuit. Electronics II Lab EELE 3120 Page 7 of 8 4) Lab work: Figure 6. For you see, the op-amp you used in the lab was a multi-stage amplifier! A multi-stage amplifier is a complex circuit constructed using several of the basic designs (e. Don’t switch OFF the machine with load. Replace the READ/CAL switch at CAL position. By adjusting the weight mounting point, three different beam lengths will be tested in this experiment. This is the second of two laboratory sessions that provide an introduction to the op amp. Op-Amps Experiment Theory. Typical numbers are in the nA range. Lab 4 - 1 Physics 120 Lab 4 (2019) - Operational Amplifiers - Basics Today we move into the world of feedback and use operational amplifiers (op-amps) as a powerful approach. The input signal is applied to the positive or non-inverting input terminal of the operational amplifier, and a portion of the output signal is fed back to the negative input terminal. 8 kΩ, and R3 = 4. 3 Introduction Electronics are a part of every modern laboratory. LIC APPLICATIONS LAB DEPARTMENT OF ECE LENDI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 8 EXPERIMENT NO: 2 Date: APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (IC 741) AIM: To design and study the operation of IC 741 Operational amplifier as a) Adder b) Subtractor c) Comparator APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Design the amplifier for voltage gain A V to be at a minimum of -100 (V/V) and choose resistor values of R C and R E by calculation. Again drive the circuit with a sine wave at a frequency of 1 kHz. And now for a 3rd fusion comic, read as columns. • Such a circuit will then be called an adder or a summing amplifier. ZUMDLJMGVTM9 \ Book ^ Design & Analysis of Experiments, 8th Edition Design & Analysis of Experiments, 8th Edition Filesize: 9. This handout gives an introduction to these amplifiers and a smattering of the various configurations that they can be used in. AC analysis of JFET. Experiment 1: RC Circuits 2 Two circuit elements are in series if all of the current flowing through one also flows through the other. Credit also goes to Peter for the expanded appendix giving a quick review of matlab commands. EE 210: CIRCUITS AND DEVICES. In Lab experiments 4 6 you will use LM 747, an op amp whose parameters. Click on Windows>>Show Diagram to display your block diagram. These experiments are. To understand the importance of op-amp in various applications like Precision Rectifiers, Filters, and DAC. The instrumentation amplifier will require three op amps. Add 25 mL of distilled water measured carefully with a graduated cylinder and re-weight the flask and stopper with the water. Begin by building the current source that you designed in the pre-lab question (Figure 4. ” In Figure 2, the current flowing through R 4 does not flow through R 5 (and vice. (series fed) 4. Total : 50 Marks Duration of Exam : 3 Hrs. Older designs of meters are mechanical in nature, using some kind of pointer device to show quantity of measurement. You also have a -reference voltage available V2=-5V. Figure 8: op-amp voltage follower with ideal op-amp model. In Experiment MW (Microwaves), the signal will come from a coil or antenna. ELECTRONICS EXPERIMENT 8 COMMON-COLLECTOR (EMITTER FOLLOWER) AMPLIFIER Objectives: 1. Make it a habit to always flame the loop one last. Total deposition estimates are derived from summing wet and dry deposition. Connect the circuit shown in the figure 1. With V in small enough to avoid slew-rate distortion, measure and record the bandwidth of the amplifier (See the description in the introduction section). Designing a Common-Collector Amplifier BACKGROUND In the previous lab, you designed a common-emitter (CE) amplifier. The third terminal serves as. V IN = 0, the voltage at the inverting input terminal must also be at ground level; if not, any voltage difference between the input terminals would be amplified to move the. Test the CMRR of the amplifier. The main objective of this Lab is to help students: - recognize the basic components used in electronics - learn the names and schematic symbols of electronic components - learn to follow and understand electronic schematic diagrams - learn the basic function of electronic components. Such a wide variation in current gains. Introduction In the previous lab, we looked at two different current sources (sinks) and compared their performance. The second method is much easier, but DO NOT read values from the power amp scale under the knob to determine the gain! Instead, use a voltmeter to determine the gain. Ans:In amplifiers cascading will increase the signal strength at recievers. This handout gives an introduction to these amplifiers and a smattering of the various configurations that they can be used in. Then the inverting Op-Amp shift the phase of the sinusoidal input signal without altering the amplitude. Add 25 mL of distilled water measured carefully with a graduated cylinder and re-weight the flask and stopper with the water. An op amp circuit is shown in figure 2. The op amp’s differential inputs “float” with respect to ground. 0 mA and an offset voltage that is less than 0. EC8361 – ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY SYLLABUS To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers. Summing amplifiers make convenient level shifters. 1 Test a single input, non-inverting op-amp circuit In the first experiment, a 741 operational amplifier (an inverting voltage op amp) using external passive devices (Figure L2-1) has been designed to amplify voltages. shows several fundamental feedback Op-Amp circuits including the DC Inverting Amplifier, DC Non-Inverting Amplifier, Summing Amplifier, Difference Amplifier, Buffer, and Comparator. Experiment 2 – Deflection of Electrons Objectives To study the effects of electric fields on beams of fast moving electrons. MT-214: Inverting Summing Amplifier PDF - Analog Devices multiple inputs with inverting summing amplifiers. Characteristics Lab Introduction Transistors are the active component in various devices like amplifiers and oscillators. 25W r 1 141000 1kΩ Resistor, 0. Most modern meters are "digital" in design, meaning that their readable display is in the form of numerical digits. Complete and Bring the Lab records regularly. LIC APPLICATIONS LAB DEPARTMENT OF ECE LENDI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 8 EXPERIMENT NO: 2 Date: APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (IC 741) AIM: To design and study the operation of IC 741 Operational amplifier as a) Adder b) Subtractor c) Comparator APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. line follower circuit will consist of an operational amplifier (op-amp), resistors, infrared sensors, motors, wheels, a battery pack, and a unique approach of using a breadboard as both the platform in which the circuit is built and the chassis of the motorized vehicle. Measure DC operating voltages at each circuit nodes, voltage gain, input, output impedance of the amplifier and compare the values to the Prelab. 3, if a diode is connected from node D to ground, (say with cathode on ground), node D is clamped at +0. You know from the book that op-amps can be used to build amplifier circuits. In this video you will come to know about inverting and non inverting amplifier practically. Experiment Number- 3 Design of Log and Antilog Amplifier AIM: To construct and study the behavior of logarithmic and antilogarithmic amplifier. Online tutorials designed are mainly intended to understand the basic concepts of electronics engineering. EE 230 Lab Lab 1 E. e u r op e a n o r ga n iza o n ti f or nu c le a r res e a r c h cern/at/95-44 (et) conceptual design of a fast neutron operated. Here the inverting mode is used. Don’t come late to the lab. ECE 2-2 lab viva questions with answers. Physics 4700 Experiment 5 Operational Amplifiers 1) Measure the voltage gain vs. The transistors and other circuitry in an op amp's differential input stage do not match perfectly. In this experiment, a 511 keV Ge-68 radiation source is used. In these labs, students will build and interface with different operational amplifier circuitry to experimentally learn the fundamentals. To compare measurements with computer simulations. Experiment l(a) : i-v characteristics of a semiconductor diode Procedure Connect the diode according to the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. State Variable Modeling The purpose of this session is to introduce the basics of state variable modeling known as \state space" techniques. 1 An ideal Dual-Input, Single-Output OP-Amp and its I-O characteristic 18 1. The objective of this experiment is to observe and measure several important operational amplifier characteristics. In the flrst experiment, you will study the construc-(a) (b) Figure 3: (a) The cosine function is an example of an even func-tion with respect to the origin, and (b) sine is an odd function. The pin out is given below in Fig. 470-471)] Objectives: 1. Crosslink experiments Ground segment experiments • Uplink ranging • Control of hosted payloads Developing a Concept for an AFRL Space Flight Experiment Goal: Solidify a GPS experiment concept for consideration as AFRL’s next space flight experiment (~2016-2020) Other potential experiments • LEO to MEO via electric propulsion. Such a circuit is known as a summing amplifier, or just as a summer. The term power amplifier is a relative term with respect to the. 3 Introduction Electronics are a part of every modern laboratory. The summing Amplifier is one variation of inverting amplifier. where the D's take the value 0 or 1. Compare the results with the published value of slew rate for the 741op-amp. ECE 2C Laboratory Manual 1a Audio Amplifier Circuit Overview In the first part of lab#1 you will construct a low-power audio amplifier/speaker driver based on the LM386 IC from National Semiconductor. Lab Manual ٤ The Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Electronics II Laboratory (EELE 3120) Laboratory Experiments: The lab will cover the following experiments: 1. Lab$3:$Operational$Amplifiers$ EE43/100Fall$2013$ M. 1 This particular operational amplifier (op amp) is symbolized by the diagram shown in. Summing Amplifier Summing Amplifier Circuit. The pulse length is determined by the amount of time it takes to charge and discharge a capacitor connected to a 555 timer. If your instructor gives you an outline for how to write a lab report, use that. 4 Experiment 2 The objective of this experiment is to design a circuit that accepts as input, solar module output, and turns on LEDs to indicate the level of ambient light present. Summarize your result in a table for various combinations of DC input voltages. 5, then make the circuit quiescent (no signal applied) by connecting both bases to ground. Swift (1667-1745) OBJECTIVE To learn to operate a cathode ray oscilloscope. The sections required vary from laboratory to laboratory but the standard outline for most lab reports in the biological science include: title, your name, purpose of the experiment, methods, results, discussion and conclusion, references. You have the transistor in your hand. Summing amplifier is a type operational amplifier circuit which can be used to sum signals. 2 CH 100W AF, using STK4231II. 5 Volts; this feature is so that the output will fall in the middle of the voltage supplied to the. Analog Electronics Laboratory Manual - 10ESL37 Dept of ECE- GCEM Page iv LAB INSTRUCTIONS Do's Ensure your presence five minutes before the commencement of the lab. Lab Experiments: Experiment 1: Construct common emitter (CE) amplifiers simulated in the pre-lab analysis. This is because of the V− node is a current summing junction where the input currents sum to the feedback current. 1 SUMMING AMPLIFIER Aim: To design and setup a summing amplifier circuit with OP AMP 741C for a gain of 2 and verify the output. So far, we have deflned waveforms in the time domain, i. Op-Amp LM358 3 Pre-lab Exercises A simple di erentiator based on the RC Op-Amp circuit can be found in Figure 1. Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. The phase shift Ф is given by each RC section Ф=tanˉ1 (1/ωrc). Measure v oc and i. 5) Measure (and record) the voltage drop from a to b (across R 4). Hartley & Colpitt’s Oscillator 26 6. Design the amplifier for voltage gain A V to be at a minimum of -100 (V/V) and choose resistor values of R C and R E by calculation. They can also be used to take derivatives and integrals. Project Title: Peltier Temperature Controller Author: Hanting Lu Abstract: This project is designed to build a controller to control the bath temperature of a petri dish. Use the oscilloscope to observe the input and output signals. EXPERIMENT 10 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP CIRCUITS OBJECTIVE To study the performance of some typical op-amp circuits. However, for a method developed in-house a higher level of proof is required to validate the method, in which case EP05-A2 would be the appropriate guideline to use. An operational amplifier, or op amp (shown in Figure 1), is an electronic circuit that can control both the voltage and current of electrical circuits, often used in thermostats, strain gages, and accelerometers, among other things. 3 Introduction Electronics are a part of every modern laboratory. The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate visible changes in E. An emitter follower is added as the. This circuit is a summing amplifier circuit. The Biopac Student Lab System is the total solution for a wide variety of scientific applications, including human, animal, organ and tissue studies. Repeat steps 20 – 23 to streak E. 0 Introduction Differential amplifier or diff-amp is a multi-transistor amplifier. The debate comes down to how informative the results are. *** Review the section on op-amp circuits in the textbook (Basic Circuit Engineering Analysis, by D. Mims III on 741 op amp circuits. pdf), Text File (. Experiment 3: Construct common collector (CC) amplifier simulated in the pre-lab analysis 3. Op-Amp configurations. In Experiment MW (Microwaves), the signal will come from a coil or antenna. Experiments: Part 1: 1. The circuit below is a two input summing amplifier in the inverting mode. two stage rc coupled amplifier. The gain of this summing amplifier is 1, any scale factor can be used for the inputs by selecting proper external resistors. Now calibrate the amplifier by measuring input voltages and output voltages. Biopac Science Lab Systems provide the same proven teaching solution for secondary. It provides large voltage gain (typically tens to hundreds) and provides moderate input and output impedance. Here the inverting mode is used. The amplifier responds to. 7) Remove R 4 from your circuit. HARDWARE LAB (Any two) S. Lab 1: etwork Analysis and Bode plots Objectives: The purpose of the lab is to investigate the frequency response of a passive filter and get the fundamentals on circuit design and analysis in the frequency domain. Poured nutrient agar plates (1 LB, 2 LB/amp, 1 LB/amp/ara) 4 Transformation solution (1 ml) 1 LB nutrient broth (1 ml) 1 Inoculation loops (1 pk of 10) 7 Disposable plastic transfer pipets (DPTPs) 4 Foam microcentrifuge tube holder/fl oat 1 Container full of crushed ice (foam/paper cups) 1 Microcentrifuge tubes 2 Marking pen 1. If more input voltages are connected to the inverting input terminal as shown, the resulting output will be the sum of all the input voltages applied,. The op-amp equation is VAVVOUT =−() 12 where A is called the open-loop gain. 2 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier (often op-amp or op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. These experiments are. Summing Amplifier. Physics 4700 Experiment 5 Operational Amplifiers 1) Measure the voltage gain vs. The national credit system planned for 2020 will be an “ecosystem” made up of schemes of various sizes and reaches, run by cities, government. When the non-inverting input is connected to ground, i. A feedback resistor R f is then connected from output to the inverting input. Theory - The Summing Amplifier is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard Inverting Operational Amplifier configuration. (One positive/negative pair from one triple supply is needed to power the op amp. Such a circuit is called a summing amplifier or an adder. The General Summing Amplifier can be used to implement any Linear circuit using only a Single op-amp. Physics, chemistry, biology, and geology all utilize electronic devices to measure and record various phenomena. To work properly in an amplifier circuit a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) must be properly biased and operate in the active mode. This laboratory manual has been prepared as a guideline to help students of undergraduate courses to carry out basic experiments in analog communication in the laboratory. 8 kΩ, and R3 = 4. You stare at it, knowing the power it contains and what it has done for the world. The publicity about online “predators” who prey on naive. Name of the Equipment Values Quantity 1 Op-Amp 741 IC 1 2 Resistor 100 KΩ , 10 KΩ 2 3 NPN transistor BC 548 1 4 Function Generator 1MHz 1 5 CRO 20 MHz 1. Physics 4700 Experiment 5 Operational Amplifiers 1) Measure the voltage gain vs. Jordan University of Science and Technology Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Instrumentation and Dynamic Systems Lab Experiment #3: Op-amp 2. It is virtually formed the differential amplifier of the input part of an operational amplifier. as a function of. Use the formula, Energy = Volume of water x (initial-final temperature) x 4. Today we are going to study one more application of Opamp which is to add two or more input voltages and the circuit is called Summing amplifier or Opamp Adder. 01 ADDER, SUBTRATOR, COMPARATOR USING IC 741 OP-AMP APPLICATION OF OP-AMP AS ADDER I. 25W r 1 143300 3. 05 Hz ~12,000,000 141 For the "Op07" Op Amp, ϖ π ϖ π T B AO = dB If the open loop bandwidth is so small, how can the op amp be useful? The answer to this is found by considering the closed loop gain. Simulate this. Commercial op amps first entered the market as integrated circuits in the mid-1960s, and by the early 1970s, they dominated the active device market in analog …. It is well known that some processes such as multiplication and. Determine the voltage gain of the amplifier in dB using Eqn. Section F4: Power Amplifier Circuits - Class B & AB Recall that the Class B amplifier was also referred to as a push-pull (or complementary symmetry) configuration, where one transistor is used to amplify the positive portion of the input signal and a second to amplify the negative portion of the input signal. iv IDEALOPAMPCIRCUITS Figure1. The operational amplifier can also be used to construct a non-inverting amplifier with the circuit indicated below. Some of the material will extend your. Libbrechta) and Eric D. The voltage across. ECE-342 Lab 5: BJT Amplifier This sample report from the 2007 ECE-342 Lab 5 assignment is meant to serve as a guide for lab reports for ECE-342 and ECE-343 Sample Lab Report Don Hummels, Someone Else September 9, 2011 Abstract Required Section: Very short description of what is in this report. The one of the oldest, most commonly used - and cheapest! - IC Operational Amplifiers is the SN741. However, unless we tear into the internals of the mathematical description or do some experimentation, we don’t know how the model handles other non-ideal effects, like slew rate, gain-bandwidth, etc. Note that R1 and R4 are potentiometers connected as variable resistors. 5) Measure (and record) the voltage drop from a to b (across R 4). It will be checked for completion at the beginning of your lab section. The inputs are DC voltages, provided by the extra DC supplies on the bench. In this video you will come to know about inverting and non inverting amplifier practically. 5 Construct the Summing Inverting amplifier shown below. 0 VDC and V 2 = 0. Physics 4700 Experiment 6 Operational Amplifiers 1) Design a non-inverting amplifier with gain of 0, 20, and 60 dB. So it looks like the uA741 model has the potential to be a reasonably accurate PSPICE op amp description. Such a circuit is known as a summing amplifier, or just as a summer. For source Vs use VSIN from the Get New Part Menu. When the function generator offset is varied, the square wave becomes asymmetric. The Legacy approach assumes that dv is equal to zero to simplify analysis. In this lab, you'll explore the oscillations of a mass-spring system, with and without damping. Note: There are low power op-amps available that run on less than 10uA. However, with circuit size in mind, this design will use the LM324. 2 The Summing-Point Constraint Operational amplifiers are almost always used with negative feedback, in which part of the op-amp output signal is returned to the input in opposition to the source signal. INTRODUCTION TO LABCHART 8!!! 6 The Input Amplifier Dialog Through the Input Amplifier dialog, you can modify signals so they are displayed optimally when you start recording. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this. Assumptions made for analyzing ideal op-amp are : Infinite open-loop gain. (2) Apply a sinusoidal signal of about 200mV amplitude (from the function generator) to each input separately with the other grounded and measure the sign and magnitude. 25W r 1 143300 3. EXPERIMENT 2 2 2. 3 Magnitude and Phase response of a Unity Gain System 19 1. 01 ADDER, SUBTRATOR, COMPARATOR USING IC 741 OP-AMP APPLICATION OF OP-AMP AS ADDER I. You can now explain with confidence what p-doping, n-doping, and depletion layers mean. In this experiment, the student will learn how to build a summing amplifier, a differentiator and an integrator using operational amplifiers and then design a final circuit that uses a combination of them. Design the amplifier for voltage gain A V to be at a minimum of -100 (V/V) and choose resistor values of R C and R E by calculation.